There are currently 571 names in this directory
A flexible, insulated lead wire used for making tests, connecting instruments to a circuit temporarily or for making temporary electrical connections.
The permanent records made by a wire manufacturer of the tests performed on a batch of wire to a specification.
Alternating Current (a.c.). An electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.
A measure of ability of a wire, wire covering or material to resist surface wear or damage by mechanical means.
A test that attempts to duplicate long-time environmental aging in comparatively short time sans.
Cables bonded by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the cable components, then joining and curing the adhesive to form a cable. See Bonded Cables.
The measure of the ease with which an alternative current flows in a circuit. The reciprocal of impedance.
Alternating Current (AC)
Electric current that continually reverses its direction. It is expressed in cycles per second (Hertz or HZ).
American Wire Gauge (AWG)
The standard system used for designating wire diameter. The lower the AWG number, the larger the diameter. Also called the Brown and Sharpe (B&S) Wire Gauge.
The maximum current an insulated wire or cable can safely carry without exceeding either the insulation or jacket material limitations.
A unit of current; one ampere is the current flowing through one ohm of resistance at one volt potential.
The magnetic intensity at any point near a current-carrying conductor can be computed on the assumption that each infinitesimal length of the conductor produces at the point of an infinitesimal magnetic density. The resulting magnetic intensity at the point is the vector sum of the contributions of all the elements of the conductor.
The process of controlled heating and cooling of a metal. In a wire and cable products, copper and aluminum are annealed to increase flexibility while maintaining adequate strength.
Appliance Wire and Cable
A classification covering insulated wire and cable for internal wiring of appliances and equipment.
The outer-most layer of a cable applied for mechanical protection usually consisting of layer(s) of metallic tape, braid, or served wires.
The American Society for Testing and Materials, a non-profit industry-wide organization which publishes standards, methods of test, recommended practices, definitions and other related material.
Power loss in an electrical system. In cables, generally expressed in db per unit length, usually 100 ft.
American Wire Gauge. The standard system used for designating wire diameter. Also referred to as the Brown and Sharpe (B&S) wire gauge.
B & S Gauge
Brown and Sharpe Gauge, a wire diameter standard which ultimately led to the American Wire Gauge standard.
A cable having two conductors which carry voltages opposite in polarity but equal in magnitude with respect to ground.
Radius of curvature that a cable can bend before the risk of breakage or increased attenuation occurs. To determine bend radius a good rule of thumb is not to exceed ten times the cable diameter.
Made non-inductive by winding together (as one wire) two wires carrying current in opposite directions.
A wire formed of two different metals joined together (not alloyed). It can include wire with a steel core clad wire, plated or coated wire.
A material used for holding assembled cable components in place awaiting subsequent manufacturing operations.
Metal spools used for taking up drawn wire and subsequently used for payout packages in cabling and stranding equipment.
The attachment at an interface between an adhesive and adherent or between materials attached by adhesive.
An insulated wire treated to facilitate adherence to materials such as potting compounds. Also, magnet wires used in making coils when bonding the turns together is desired.
Cable consisting of pre-insulated conductors or multiconductor components laid in parallel and bonded into a flat cable. See Adhesive-Bonded.
A fibrous or metallic group of filaments interwoven in a cylindrical shape to form a covering over one or more wires.
A spool or bobbin on a braid which holds one group of strands or filaments consisting of a specific number of ends. The carrier revolves during braiding operations.
The number of strands used to make up one carrier. The strands are wound side by side on the carrier bobbin and lie parallel in the finished braid.
Machine used to apply braids to wire and cable and to produce braided sleeving and braids for tying or lacing purposes. Braiding machines are identified by the number of carriers.
The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors will break down or arc over.
A stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable) or a combination of conductors (multiple-conductor cable). In fiber optics, a jacketed fiber or jacketed bundle in a form which can be terminated.
Cable Core Binder
A wrapping of tapes or cords around the conductors of a multiple conductor cable used to hold them together.
The material used in multiple conductor cables to occupy the interslices formed by the assembly of the insulated conductors, thus forming a cable core.
A rigid structural system used to support cables and raceways. Types of cable trays include ladder, ventilated trough, ventilated channel and solid bottom.
Twisting together two or more insulated conductors by machine to form a cable. In fiber optics, a method by which a group or bundle of fibers is mechanically assembled.
Used in the formula for calculating the diameter of an unshielded, unjacketed cable. D=Kd, where D is the cable diameter, K is the factor and d is the diameter of one insulated conductor.
The ability of a dielectric material between conductors to store energy when a difference of potential exists between the conductors. Cable capacitance is usually measured in picofarads (pF) per unit length.
The capacitance measured from one conductor to another conductor through a single insulating layer.
The capacitance between two conductors (typically of a pair) with all other conductors, including shield and short circuited to ground.
The woven element of a braid consisting of one or more ends (strands) which creates the interlaced effect. Also, a spindle, spool, tube or bobbin (on a braiding machine) containing yarn or wire, employed as a braid.
European Standards Agency; International Commission on Rules for the Approval of Electrical Equipment.
Certificate of Compliance (C of C)
A written statement, normally generated by a Quality Control Department, which states that the product being shipped meets customer’s specifications.
Certified Test Report (CTR)
A report reflecting actual test data on the cable shipped. Tests are normally conducted by the Quality Control Department and show that the product being shipped meets the required test specifications.
The ratio of voltage to current at every point along a transmission line at the point the voltage is applied. The impedance which makes a transmission cable seem infinitely long, when connected across the cable’s output terminals
A complete path over which electrons can flow from the negative terminals of a voltage source through parts and wires to the positive terminals of the same voltage source.
A device that can be used to manually open or close a circuit and to automatically open a circuit at a predetermined level of overcurrent without damage to itself.
The root-mean-square (effective) difference of potential between any two conductors of the circuit.
Circular Mil Area (CMA)
The square of a conductor diameter in mils, of thousandths of an inch. Example a 30 AWG conductor has a diameter of 10 mils and a CMA of 100. Used to determine conductor sizes.
Method of applying a layer of metal over another metal whereby the junction of the two metals is continuously welded. In fiber optics, a sheathing intimately in contact with the core of a higher refractive index material which serves to provide optical insulation and protection to the reflection interface.
A copper conductor which has been coated with a metallic substance. A tin coating is applied to protect copper from chemical attack by sulfur-based insulation compounds; nickel coating is sometimes used with conductors rated for extremely high temperatures.
Cable consisting of two cylindrical conductors with a common axis, separated by a dielectric.
The inductive effect exhibited by a spiral-wrapped shield, especially above audio frequencies.
A cold chamber test to determine effects of specified temperatures on cable which has been wrapped around a mandrell.
Permanent deformation of the insulation due to mechanical force of pressure (not due to heat softening).
A color system for wire or circuit identification by use of solid colors, tracer braids, surface printing, etc.
A stranding configuration that uses two strand sizes to achieve a 3% reduction in the conductor diameter without compression.
Common Axis Cabling
In multiple cable constructions, a twisting of all conductors about a “common axis” to result in smaller diameter constructions. Tends to result in greater susceptance to electromagnetic and electrostatic interference.
Composite (Clad) Wire
A wire having a core of one metal with a fused outer shell of different metals.
A stranding configuration with concentric strands in which all layers or the outer layer only is passed through a die to reduce the conductor diameter by 3%.
A group of uninsulated wires twisted around a center core with subsequent layers spirally wrapped around the core, alternating lay directions, to form a single conductor.
In a wire or cable, the measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the insulation. Expressed in percent.
The ability of a conductor to carry electric current; reciprocal of resistance. Measured in mhos (ohm backwards).
the capability of material to carry electrical current, expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity with copper being 100%.
An alloy used in making thermocouples wires. An alloy of copper, nickel manganese and iron.
The part of a connector that carries the electrical current; two contacts are touched together or separated to control the flow.
A test to determine whether electric current flows continuously throughout the length of a single wire or individual wires in a cable.
An electrical load in which the maximum current is expected to continue for three hours or more.
Cable spiraling in an opposite direction than the preceding layer within a wire or cable.
A stranding configuration in which individual wire are stranded concentrically with no reduction in overall diameter. Typically used for bare conductors.
The most widely used electrical conductor in wires and cables. Some of the common types of electrical coppers and copper alloys are: Electrolytic tough pitch copper (ETPC) has a minimum copper content of 99.9%. Annealed conductivity averages 101% with a 100& minimum. Commonly used for wire and bus bars.
The time that the insulation will withstand a specified level of field intensified ionization that does not result in the immediate complete breakdown of the insulation.
The calculated percentage which defines the completeness with which a metal braid covers the underlying surface. The higher percentage of coverage, the greater the protection against external interference.
Textile braid or jacket of rubber, plastics or other materials applied over wire and cables to provide mechanical protection and identification.
Act of compressing a connector barrel around a cable in order to make an electrical connection.
Inter-molecular bonds between long-chain thermoplastic polymers due to chemical or electron bombardment. The properties of the resulting thermo-setting material are usually improved.
Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE)
A common thermoset insulation material for building wire and cable. Polyethylene made from petroleum and natural gas undergoes a cross-linking chemical reaction that causes compound molecules to bond, forming heavier molecules with the desired physical and chemical properties.
Cross-Sectional Area (csa)
The area of a conductor exposed by cutting the conductor perpendicularly to its length, expressed in circular-mils, thousands of circular-mil, square inches, or square millimeters.
Undesired electrical currents in conductors caused by electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling from other conductors or from external sources. Also, leakage of optical power from one optical conductor to another.
Canadian Standards Association, a non-profit independent organization which operates a listing service for electrical and electronic materials and equipment. The Canadian counterpart of the Underwriters Laboratories.
The degree to which a wire tends to form a circle after removal from a spool. An indication of the ability of the wire to be wrapped around posts in long runs.
Maximum current an insulated conductor or cable can continuously carry without exceeding its temperature rating; also called ampacity.
The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure usually a sharp edge or small radius without separation.
An outdoor location that is partially protected from weather or an indoor location subject to a moderate degree of moisture, such as a basement.
A unit to express differences of power level. Used to express power gain in amplifiers or power loss in passive circuits or cables.
In a residence, a 120, 120/240, or 240 volt circuit that is installed to supply power to specific equipment indoors or outdoors, such as a large appliance or heating and air conditioning equipment.
The amount of increase in temperature caused by the introduction of electricity into a unit.
A cable made to provide very low velocity of propagation with long electrical delay for transmitted signals.
A term borrowed from the textile industry for sizing yarns. Denier is defined as the weight in grams of 9,000 yards of yarn.
A factor used to reduce the current-carrying capacity of a wire when used in environments other than that for which the value was established.
Water or moisture absorbent material used to prevent moisture from damaging packaged equipment or other merchandise.
A device used in the drawing of a wire; the element through which the wire is drawn, to achieve a predetermined diameter. A mold used to form a plastic compound around a wire or cable.
An insulating medium which intervenes between two conductors and permits electrostatic attraction and repulsion to take place across it.
The voltage required to cause an electrical failure or breakthrough of the insulation.
Dielectric Constant (K)
The ratio of the capacitance of a condenser with dielectric between the electrodes to the capacitance when air is between the electrodes. Also called Permittivity and Specific Inductive Capacity.
The power dissipated in a dielectric as the result of the friction produced by molecular motion when an alternating electric field is applied.
The voltage which an insulating material can withstand before breakdown occurs, usually expressed as a voltage gradient (such as volts per mil).
A test in which a voltage higher than the rated voltage is applied for a specified time to determine the adequacy of the insulation under normal conditions.
Direct Current Resistance (DCR)
The resistance offered by any circuit to the flow of direct current.
Direction of Lay
The lateral direction in which the strands of a conductor run over the top of the cable conductor as they recede from an observer looking along the axis of the conductor or cable. Also applies to twisted cable.
A sudden, large increase in current through an insulation medium due to the complete failure of the medium under the electrostatic stress.
A number of small gauge bare wires applied concentrically about the insulation shield of a high voltage cable for the purpose of a fault current return path.
In the manufacture of wire, pulling the metal through a die or series of dies for reduction of diameter to a specified size.
Typically used in the thermocouple industry to denote two parallel conductors of dissimilar metals insulated in parallel without twists and jackets. Commonly applied to thermocouple grades and extension wires.
A measuring device used to denote the hardness of plastic. For most flexible plastics, the A or D scale is used.
A rating that describes the ability of an electric device to carry a current load for a given frequency of use.
Symbol for voltage. Used to represent direct voltage or the effective (root-mean-square) value of an alternating voltage.
Like concentricity, a measure of the center of a conductor’s location with respect to the circular cross-section of the insulation. Expressed as a percentage of displacement of one circle within the other.
A rubber or rubber-like material which will stretch repeatedly to 200 percent or more and return rapidly and with force to its approximate original shape.
Pertaining to the combined electric and magnetic fields associated with movements of electrons through conductors.
Electromagnetic Induction The
The production of a voltage in a coil due to a change in the number of magnetic lines of force (flux linkages) passing through the coil.
Electromotive Force (e.m.f.)
Pressure or voltage. The force which causes current to flow in a circuit.
The term used to indicate the application of a metallic coating on a surface by means of an electrolytic action.
Load which occurs when larger-than-normal currents are carried through a cable or wire over a certain period of time.
A conductor with a baked-on enamel film insulation. In addition to magnet wire, enameled insulation is used on thermocouple-type wires and other wires.
More than one layer of helically-laid wires with the direction of lay reversed for successive layers, but with the length of lay the same for each layer.
A process applied to fluoroplastic wire in which the wire is passed through a sodium bath to create a rough surface to allow epoxy resin to bond the fluoroplastic.
Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene. An alternating copolymer consisting of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene segments. High impact resistance with useful mechanical properties up to 200°C.
Ethylene Copolymers (Non-Halogen)
An insulation material that combines attributes of polyethylene and polypropylene to provide a high level of flame resistance and low smoke production.
The effects of electrical waves or fields which cause sounds other than the desired signal; static.
Cable with conductors which are uniformly insulated and formed by applying a homogeneous insulated material in a continuous extrusion process.
Method of continuously forcing plastic, rubber or elastomer material through an orifice to apply insulation or jacketing over a conductor or cable core.
Factor of Assurance
The ratio of the voltage of wire for cable insulation is tested to that which is used.
Unit of Capacitance. For wire and cable a lesser unit of picofarads is used. One picofarad is one thousand millionths of a Farad.
Resistance to metal crystallization which causes conductors or wires to break from flexing.
Fluorinated ethylene-propylene. A thermoplastic with excellent dielectric properties as well as chemical and head resistance.
A thread or thread-like structure. Also, a single discrete element used to transmit optical (light wave) information.
A lightwave or optical communications system in which electrical information is converted to light energy transmitted to another location through optical fibers and there is converted back into electrical information.
(1) A material used in multi-conductor cables to occupy large interstices formed by the assembled conductors. (2) An inert substance added to a compound to improve properties or decrease cost.
A conductor used in lighting fixtures or similar equipment and used to connect a lighting fixture to branch circuit conductors. Common types include Type TF (thermoplastic insulated, solid or 7 strand conductor) and Type TFN (thermoplastic-insulated, nylon jacket, solid or 7-strand conductor).
A chemical added to insulation materials to make them less combustible, such as antimony trioxide (PVC) or alumina trihydrate or carbon black (XLPE). Also used to describe flame resistance.
A woven braid which is rolled flat at time of manufacture to a specific width depending upon construction. It is used as a ground strap.
The number of cycles that a cable can withstand before failure when bent around a specific radius.
That quality of a cable or cable component which allows for bending under the influence of outside force, as opposed to limpness which is bending due to the cable’s own weight.
High-temperature pastics with excellent electrical properties. New England Wire Technologies most frequently uses ETFE, FEP and PFA.
Using highly controlled extrusion processes, materials are foamed resulting in a significantly reduced dielectric constant (1.45 – 1.8) that approaches the nearly ideal properties of air without sacrificing structural integrity.
Resins in flexible or rigid sponge formed with the cells closed or interconnected. Foamed insulations provide low dielectric contestants and weight savings.
A flammability rating established by Underwriters Laboratories for wire and cable that pass a specially-designed vertical flame test.
In ac systems, the rate at which the current changes direction, expressed in hertz (cycles per second).
The ability of a conductor or cable assembly to resist physical or electrical degradation caused by fungus growth in wet or damp environments.
A metallic coating which has been melted and solidified, forming a metallurgical bond to the base material.
Individual strands of heavy tinned copper wire stranded together and then bonded together by induction heating.
A coating of some metal part (usually steel or iron) with zinc by dipping or electroplating.
A term used to describe the physical size of a wire. As the AWG number gets smaller, the diameter of the wire gets larger.
Used to provide thermal and/or mechanical protection to the underlying insulation of certain types of conductors.
A conducting connection between an electrical circuit and the earth or other large conducing body to serve as an earth, thus making a complete electrical circle.
The insulation used between a winding and the magnetic core or other structural parts, usually at ground potential.
The generation of undesirable current flow within a ground conductor, owing to the circulation currents which originate from a second source of voltage.
Any of five elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. These elements may be combined with insulation compounds to enhance flame retardancy.
An arrangement of wires and cables, usually with many breakouts, which have been tied together or pulled into a rubber or plastic sheath, used to interconnect an electric circuit.
A location where fire or explosion hazards may exist because of flammable gases, vapors, or liquids; combustible dust; or ignitable fibers or flyings.
The ability of an insulation compound to resist degradation caused by high temperatures.
Test to determine stability of a material by sudden exposure to a high temperature for a short period of time.
Unit of inductance such that the induced voltage in volts is numerically equal to the rate of change in current in amperes per second.
A cable insulating system composed of two or more layers of different insulating materials.
A test designed to determine the highest potential that can be applied to conductor without breaking through the insulation.
High Strength Alloy Conductor
A conductor which shows a maximum 20% increase in resistance and a minimum of a 70% increase in breaking strength over the equivalent construction in pure copper while exhibiting a minimum elongation of 5% in 10 inches
Generally considered to be a wire or cable with an operating voltage of over 600 volts.
High-Temperature Wire and Cable
Electrical wire and cables having thermal operating characteristics of 150°C and higher.
A single insulated conductor used for low-current, low voltage (usually under 600 volts) applications within enclosed electronic equipment.
The underground phase conductors of an electrical system connected to the circuit breaker or fuse.
Test for ascertaining the punishment a cable configuration can withstand without physical or electrical breakdown, by impacting with a given weight, dropped a given distance in a controlled environment.
The total opposition that a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current or any other varying current at a particular frequency. It is a combination of resistance (R) and reactance (X), measured in ohms.
The voltage breakdown of insulation under voltage surges on the order of microseconds in duration.
An insulation test in which the voltage applied is an impulse voltage of a specified wave shape.
Measured in henries. A property of an electric current by which an electromotive force is induced in it by a variation of current either in the circuit itself or in a neighboring circuit.
Crosstalk resulting from the action of the electromagnetic field of one conductor on the other.
A conductor to which an insulating material has been applied to withstand a predetermined voltage gradient.
A material having high resistance to the flow of electric current. Often called a dielectric in radio frequency cable.
The degree of tightness of the insulation over the base conductor (measured in terms of force)
The area of a terminal, splice or contact that has been formed around the insulation of the wire.
The ratio of the applied voltage to the total current between two electrodes in contact with a specific insulation, usually expressed in megohms-M feet.
A layer of semi-conducting material or tape applied directly over the insulation of high voltage cables, usually on cables rated at over 5000 volts. In addition to this layer, some cable constructions include a layer of non-magnetic metal overlapping tape or a number of helically applied small wires.
Any undesired electrical signal introduced into a conductor by electrical or electromagnetic means.
The diameter of some internal part or composite of an object which in this case would pertain to wire, cable, etc.
Electronic wiring which interconnects components, usually within a sealed subsystem.
Voids or valleys between individual strands in a conductor or between insulated conductors in a multiconductor cable.
Ionization Voltage (Corona Level)
The minimum value of falling rms voltage which sustains electrical discharge within the vacuous or gas filled spaces in the cable construction or insulation.
TYPE J Thermocouple. Composed of a positive leg which is iron and a negative leg which is approximately 45% nickel - 55% copper.
In insulation, the exposure of the material to high-energy emissions for the purpose of cross linking
International Standards Organization. New England Wire Technologies is an ISO 9001:2015 registered company.
A covering applied over primary insulation, braids, shields, cable components or over the cable itself.
A short length of conductor used to make a temporary connection between terminals, around a break in a circuit or around an instrument.
A strong, heat-resistance material used as a binding thread in SEU cable to hold the assembly together.
Pennwalt trade name for polyvinylidene fluoride. Typically used as insulation for wire wrap wire.
A liquid resin or compound applied to textile braid to prevent fraying, moisture absorption, etc.
The direction in which the wires of a conductor are twisted, or the twist of conductors in a cable.
The length measured along the axis of a wire or cable required for a single strand (in stranded wire) or conductor (in cable) to make one complete turn about the axis of the conductor or cable.
A test to determine the length of time before failure in a controlled, usually accelerated, environment.
A conductor rating that indicates the product has passed tests for low smoke production, short flame travel and duration.
Limits of Error
The maximum deviation (in degrees of percent) of a thermocouple or thermocouple extension wire from standard emf-temperature to be measured.
Conductors or other equipment included in a list published by a national recognized testing laboratory.
a stranded (bunched) or cabled conductor made of magnet wire in which each strand is insulated from every other strand.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A baseband or broadband, interactive, bi-directional, communication system for information exchange on a common transmission line.
A tape shield, flat or corrugated, applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being shielded
The total resistance of two conductors measured round trip from one end. Commonly used term in the thermocouple industry.
Low Loss Dielectric
An insulation material that has a relatively low dielectric loss, such as polyethylene or fluoropolymer.
Low Noise Cable
Cable configuration specially constructed to eliminate spurious electrical disturbances caused by capacitance changes or self-generated triboelectric noise.
Insulated wire intended for use in windings on motor, transformer and other coils for electromagnetic devices.
A tape laid parallel to the conductors under the jacket in a cable, imprinted with manufacturer's name and/or specification to which the cable is made.
A colored thread laid parallel and adjacent to the strand in an insulated conductor which identifies the manufacturer and sometimes the specification to which the wire is made.
A testing device that applies a dc voltage to a conductor and measures the resistance (in millions of ohms) offered by the conductor’s insulation.
0.001" (1/1000 inch) one 1000th of an inch. A unit used in measuring diameter of wire or thickness of an insulation over a conductor.
The amount of moisture, in percentage, that a material will absorb under specified conditions.
The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water.
Motor Lead Wire
Wire which connects to the fragile magnet wire found in coils, transformers and stator or field windings.
Capacitance between two conductors when all other conductors, including ground, are connected together and then regarded as an ignored ground
National Electrical Code® Article 725
The NEC Article which covers remote control signal and communication power limited circuits that are not an integral part of the device or appliance.
National Electrical Code® Article 760
The NEC Article which covers the fire and burglar alarms installation of wire and equipment operating at 600 Volts or less.
National Electrical Code® Article 800
The NEC Article which covers telephone, telegraph as well as outside wiring for fire and burglar alarms.
A synthetic rubber with good resistance to oil, chemicals and flame. Also called polychloroprene.
The preferred size or weight that is specified or indicated for a certain cable element.
A class of thermoplastic polyamides capable of extrusion when molten into fibers, sheets, etc., of extreme toughness, strength, and elasticity, synthesized by the interaction of a dicarboxylic acid with a diamine.
Percentage of a specified gas released during the combustion of insulation or jacketing material.
A unit of electrical resistance defined as the resistance of a circuit with a voltage of one volt and a current flow of one ampere.
The formula V=I x R (voltage equals current multiplied by resistance), used for calculating voltage drop, fault current and other characteristics of an electrical circuit.
Cable aged in an accelerated manner by placement in an oil bath and heated to a pre-set temperature for a stated time.
The ability of a conductor cable insulation or jacket to resist physical degradation caused by exposure to oil.
The temperature of the conductor insulation while carrying current, including the effect of ambient temperature and heat generated from the electrical current.
Occupational Safety and Health Act. Specifically the Williams-Steiger law passed in 1970 covering all factors relating to safety in places of employment.
A device such as a circuit breaker of fuse that automatically interrupts the circuit when current (in excess of a given rating), flows through the circuit because of a short circuit, overload or ground fault.
The process of uniting a compound with oxygen, usually resulting in an unwanted surface degradation of the material or compound.
Oxygen-free high conductivity copper (OFHC)
has 99.5% minimum copper content with an average annealed conductivity of 101%.
A twisted pair cable is a type of cable made by putting two separate insulated wires together in a twisted pattern and running them parallel to each other.
A duplex construction of two insulated conductors laid parallel and then covered overall with a braid or jacket.
A stripe applied longitudinally on a wire or cable parallel to the axis of the conductor.
Quantity of plating on a conductor expressed as percentage by weight; thus, for the same percentage, as the conductor diameter increases, so does the thickness of the plating.
A melt processible insulation with excellent thermal and electrical insulation properties including resistance to practically all chemicals, resistance to weathering and low friction coefficient.
Distance between two adjacent crossover points of braid filaments. The measurement in picks per inch indicates the degree of coverage.
Picks Per Inch (P/I)
The number of times the carriers in a braid cross over each other in the same direction along the longitudinal axis for each inch of length.
One-millionth of one-millionth of a farad. A micromicrofarad or picofarad (abbreviation pf). (See µµF).
Fine-stranded, extra-flexible, ropelay lead wire attached to a shield for terminating purposes.
A cabler capable of laying down any number of shielded overbraided or jacketed singles, pairs, (called groups) or any combination of them in sequence.
A twisting machine whose pay-off spools are mounted in rotating cradles that hold the axis of the spool in a fixed direction as the spools are revolved so the wire will not kink as it is twisted
Power Limited Tray Cable, tray rated cable for power limited circuits, generally shielded pairs/triads and overall shield, meets U.L. Standard #13 and used in accordance with N.E.C. Article #725
A synthetic polymer of a type made by the linkage of an amino group of one molecule and a carboxylic acid group of another, including many synthetic fibers such as Nylon.
A thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties, low dielectric constant and very high insulation resistance. Can be stiff to very hard, depending on molecular weight and density. Moisture resistance is rated excellent.
A general name for polymers containing halogen atoms. The halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
A substance made of many repeating chemical units or molecules. The term polymer is often used in plase of plastic, rubber or elastomer.
Any of the polymer and copolymers of the ethylene family of hydrocarbons, such as polyethylene and polypropylene.
A thermoplastic similar to polyethylene but stiffer and having a higher softening point (temperature). This material is used primarily as an insulation material. Typically, it is harder than polyethylene which makes it suitable for thin wall insulations
A synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon by Chemours.
This plastic usually used as a jacketing material and offers good abrasion and is very flexible. Not normally used for insulation.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of vinyl chloride which may be rigid or elastomeric, depending on specific formulation.
Cables of various sizes, construction and insulation, single- or multi-conductor, designed to distribute primary power to various types of equipment.
The ratio of resistance to impedance. The ratio of the actual power of an alternating current to apparent power. Mathematically, the cosine of the angle between the voltage applied and the current resulting.
The first layer of nonconductive material applied over a conductor. Its function is to act as an electrical insulation.
Non-uniform current distribution over the cross-section of a conductor caused by the variation of the current in a neighboring conductor.
A type of coaxial cable constructed to transmit repeated high-voltage pulses without degradation.
Refers to packaging of wire and cable, the term itself refers to the packaged product that is ready to be stored or shipped out.
Polyvinyl chloride, a common thermoplastic insulation and jacketing material for building wire and cable.
An enclosed channel designed expressly for holding conductors and cables, including conduit and tubing, wireways and busways.
The maximum temperature at which an electrical component can operate for extended periods without undue degradation or safety hazard.
The maximum voltage at which an electrical component can be operated for extended periods without undue degradation or safety hazard.
A measure of the combined effects of capacitance and inductance on an alternating current. The amount of such opposition varies with the frequency of the current. The reactance of a capacitor decreases with an increase in frequency. The opposite occurs with an inductance.
A contact device installed at an electrical outlet for the connection of a single attachment plug.
A powdery brown-red oxide of silver formed with water or rocket fuel fumes. It is highly conductive and can flake off and cause shorts in electrical equipment.
A revolvable flanged device made of wood or metal, used for winding flexible metal wire or cable.
The part of a signal which is lost due to reflection of power at a line discontinuity.
The outermost covering of a cable that has cable sheath constructed in layers with the addition of a reinforcing material, usually a braided fiber, molded in place between layers
The property of a substance to return to its original configuration after release of an applied force.
A measure of the difficulty in moving electrical current through a medium when voltage is applied. It is measured in ohms.
The longitudinal electrical resistance of a conductor of unit length and unit cross-sectional area, expressed in ohms-circular-mils per foot; the opposite of conductivity.
A coiled cable that returns by its own stored energy from an extended condition to its original retracted form.
A cable composed of individually insulated conductors laid parallel and held together by extrusion, bonding or woven textile yarn.
Two or more insulated conductors in a parallel configuration which may be separated to leave the insulation of each conductor intact.
The solid round metallic form of copper and aluminum which is the most effective shape from which to draw wire.
The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC, short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union restricting the use of Hazardous Substances.
Rope Lay Cable
A concentric, stranded cable designed for flexibility with its individual members made up of strands which are either concentric stranded or bunched.
Rope Lay Conductor
A conductor composed of a central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically-laid groups of wires.
Rubber (Wire Insulation)
Term used to describe wire insulations made of thermosetting elastomers, occur naturally or may be made synthetically.
That point at which a material exceeds its elastic limit and physically comes apart as opposed to yield strength, elongation, etc.
The vertical distance between a suspended conductor and an imaginary straight line connecting the points of suspension. Sag may be measured at the mid point between the suspensions, the lowest point of the conductor or at any specified point.
Characteristic of a material whose flame is extinguished after the igniting flame source is removed.
Made with a steel support strand capable of supporting its own weight across spans.
A jacket having a sufficiently low resistance so that its outer surface can be kept at substantially ground potential.
An insulation cross-section having a partially open space between the conductor and the insulation perimeter.
A nonconductive material made slightly conductive by the addition of a specific sum of conductive material.
A layer of insulating material which is placed between a conductor and its dielectric, between a cable jacket and the components it covers or between various components of a multiple-conductor cable.
A wrapping applied over the core of a cable or over a wire. Servings may be in the form of filaments, fibers, yarn, tape, etc. Often referred to as a binder.
A tape, serve or braid (usually copper, aluminum or conductive metal) placed around or between electric circuits or cables or their components, to prevent signal leakage or interference.
The amount of optical coverage, usually expressed percentage. For most cables the value runs between 85% and 90%.
A load that occurs when an ungrounded conductor comes into contact with another conductor or grounded object.
Jacketing material made from silicone and oxygen. Noted for high heat resistance and excellent electrical properties plus ozone resistance, low moisture absorption, weather resistance and radiation resistance.
A silicone liquid treatment applied to insulated conductors to allow for easy jacket stripping.
Silver is similar to gold in corrosion resistance. It costs less than other precious metals. It is very soft when fully annealed but work hardens during fabrication. It provides very good conductivity and solderability. It is widely used as plating or coating.
Widely separated braid of fiber copper, or steel, used to hold core together, for reinforcing jacket or for shielding.
In an AC system, the tendency of the outer portion of a conductor to carry more of the current as the frequency of the AC increases.
A braided, knifed or woven tube used over wires or components as insulation tubing. Also called Sleeving.
A test preformed on wire and cable to determine the amount of pin holes or defects in the insulation.
The density (mass per unit volume) of any material divided by that of water at a standard temperature. Most insulations range in values of .9 to 1.9.
A connection of two or more conductors or cables to provide good mechanical strength as well as good conductivity.
A metallic compound added to PVC to maintain the integrity of the insulation compound during processing and use.
The distance of advance of one strand of a spirally-stranded conductor, in one turn, measured axially.
A conductor composed of a group of wires, or of any combination of groups of wires. (Note: The wires in a stranded conductor are usually twisted or braided together.)
The ability of a conductor or cable insulation to resist degradation caused by exposure to ultraviolet rays.
The resistance of a material between two opposite sides of a unit square of its surface. Surface resistively may vary widely with the conditions of measurement.
The process of accumulating wire or cable onto a reel, bobbin or some other type of pack. Also, the device for pulling wire or cable through a piece of equipment or machine.
A voltage dielectric test in which the test sample is submerged in water and voltage is applied between the conductor and water as ground.
Insulation of helically-wound tapes applied over a conductor or over an assembled group of insulated conductors.
A term used to describe the discoloration of a material caused by exposure to a corrosive environment.
The force required to initiate or continue a tear in a material under specified conditions.
Registered trademark of DuPont® Company. Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP). A 200°C rated Fluoropolymer that can be used for insulation and jacket applications.
Registered trademark of the DuPont® Company. Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA). A 250°C rated Fluoropolymer that can be used for insulation and jacket applications.
Registered trademark of the DuPont® Company. Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE). A 260°C rated Fluoropolymer that can be used for insulation and jacket applications.
Registered trademark of the DuPont Company. Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), is a 150°C rated Fluoropolymer that can be used for insulation and jacket applications.
The softness of a metal; terms such as soft-drawn, dead soft, annealed, and semi-annealed are used to describe tempers used for conductor metals.
The maximum temperature at which the insulating material may be used in continuous operation with a loss of 50% of its original properties.
The condition when a plastic material shows permanent deformation caused by a stress, after the stress is removed.
Metal wire termination devices designed to handle one or more conductors and to be attached to a board bus or block with mechanical fasteners or clipped on
A flexible, insulated lead wire used for making tests, connecting instruments to a circuit temporarily or for making temporary electrical connections.
Canadian Standard Association type appliance wires. Solid or stranded single conductor, plastic-insulated. 600V, up to 105°C.
Tetrafluoroethylene. A thermoplastic material with good electrical insulating properties, chemical and heat resistance. Rated to 260°C.
The resulting characteristics when a material is subjected to rapid and wide range changes in temperature in an effort to discover its ability to withstand heat and cold.
Exposure to a thermal condition or programmed series of conditions for predescribed periods of time.
The maximum and/or minimum temperature at which a material will perform its function without undue degradation.
Thermal Resistance of a Cable
The resistance offered by the insulation to the flow of heat from the conductor(s) to the earth.
A two conductor cable with each conductor employing a dissimilar metal, made up specifically for temperature measurements.
A plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
A material which hardens or sets when heat is applied and which, once set cannot be resoftened by heating. The application of heat is called “curing.”
There are two types: Electrotinned and Hot-Dipped. Electrotinned is the process of electroplating the surface of a conductor material with a tin or tin-lead alloy. Hot-Dipped is the process of pulling the conductor material through a molten bath of the tin or tinlead alloy.
A type of electrical conductor comprised of a number of threads, each thread having a fine, flat ribbon of copper or other metal closely spiraled about it. Used for small size cables requiring flexibility and long flex life.
A low voltage, stranded wire where each strand is very thin conductor ribbon spirally wrapped around a textile yarn.
Transfer of electric energy from one location to another through conductors or by radiation or induction fields.
The decrease or loss in power during transmission of energy from one point to another. Usually expressed in decibels.
Interchanging the relative positions of wires to neutralize the effects of induction to, or from other circuits or, to minimize interference pickup by the lead-in during reception.
A factory-assembled multiconductor or multi-pair control cable approved under the National Electrical Code for installation in trays.
Noise generated in a shielded cable due to variations in capacitance between shielding and conductor as the cable is flexed.
A cable in which each successive layer has a reversed direction of lay from the preceding layer.
A cable composed of two insulated conductors, twisted together without a common covering.
Underwriters Laboratories. An organization which tests and verifies construction and performance of electronics parts and equipment.
Ultraviolet (UV) Inhibitor
Chemicals in a PVC insulation compound protect the insulation from breaking down when exposed to sunlight.
The degradation caused by long time exposure of a material to sunlight or other ultraviolet rays containing radiation.
Unidirectional Concentric Stranding
A stranding where each successive layer has a different lay length, thereby retaining a circular form without migration of strands from on layer to another.
A term denoting that in a stranded conductor all layers have the same direction of lay.
A conductor constructed with a central core surrounded by more than one layer of helically-laid wires, with all layers having a common length and direction of lay.
Velocity of Propagation
The speed of an electrical signal down a length of cable compared to speed in free space expressed as a percent. It is the reciprocal of the square root of the dielectric constant of the cable insulation.
A unit of electrical pressure. One volt is the amount of pressure that will cause one ampere of current in one ohm of resistance.
A term used to express the amount of voltage loss in a conductor of given size and length drawing a given current.
The highest voltage that may be continuously applied to a wire or cord in conformance with standards or specifications.
Voltage Withstand Test
A field or factory test in which a conductor is subjected to a higher than normal AC or DC voltage.
(Specific Insulation Resistance) The electrical resistance between opposite faces of a 1-cm cube of insulating material, commonly expressed in ohm-centimeters.
A chemical reaction in which the physical properties of an elastomer are changed by reacting it with sulfur or other cross-linking agents.
Water Absorption Test
A test to determine the water absorbed by a material after a given immersion period.
A cable constructed with no internal voids in order to allow no longitudinal water passage under a given pressure.
A unit of electrical power. One watt is equivalent to the power represented by one ampere of current under a pressure of one volt in DC circuit.
The lowest stress at which a material undergoes deformation. Below this stress, the material is elastic; above it, viscous.